Washington UniversitySchool of Medicine
Electronic Radiology Laboratory Electronic Radiology Lab banner

Computed Tomography Imaging

Our research involves development of advanced algorithms and scan protocols for specialized clinical imaging tasks.  CT is the most used 3D clinical imaging modality, with excellent tissue contrast and spatial resolution.  There is currently need to improve image information in the presence of radio-opaque objects, and to improve the signal-to-noise ratio in order to reduce the risk of ionizing radiation.  Application areas have included cochlear implants, brachytherapy treatment planning, prosthetic designs for diabetic feet, virtual colonoscopy, radiation therapy treatment planning, hip implant fillings, and scientific investigations such as Egyptian mummies, Neanderthal and hobbit specimens, and fossilized mammalian ear structures.


To apply leading-edge technical methods to improve clinical CT imaging. To develop fundamental models of the CT acquisition process and incorporate them into statistically based reconstruction algorithms. To incorporate auxiliary information about artificial objects within the field of view into reconstruction algorithms.


Washington University Electronic Signals and Systems Lab (Jody O’Sullivan and Don Snyder); Jeff Williamson, Virginia Commonwealth University; Margo Skinner, Washington University Otolaryngology; Charles Finley, Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Dan Low, Washington University Radiation Oncology; Michael Miller, Washington University Physical Therapy; Robert Barrack, Washington University Orthopedic Surgery;


NIH grants include:

  • “Spiral CT Colography (Virtual Colonoscopy) for Detection of Colorectal Polyps”, NIH/NCI N01-CN-25516 (McFarland, EG), 1998-2002;
  • Co-Investigator, “Artifact-free CT Imaging for Radiotherapy Planning”, NIH/RAD R01CA75371-05A1 (JF Williamson), 2000-2005;
  • “Application of Advanced 3D Imaging Techniques for Improved Cochlear Implant Electrode Performance”, Whitaker Foundation Biomedical Engineering Research Grant, 4/1/2000-3/31/2003;
  • “Radiation Dose Reduction in X-ray Computed Tomography”, NIH/NCI R21 CA95408-01 (BR Whiting), 2002-2005;
  • “Strategies to Optimize Benefit with a Cochlear Implant”, NIH/NIDCD 5R01DC000581-14 (MW Skinner), 2003-2005
  • "Lung Trajectory Mapping for IMRT",NIH/NCI 1R01CA096679-01A1 (PI: LOW, DA), 2003-2005
  • “Physio-anatomical Factors in Cochlear Implant Outcomes”, NIH/NIDCD, 1R21DC006665-01 (PI: Finley, CC), 2004-2006, 25% FTE


  1. Kyongtae T. Bae and Bruce R Whiting, "Basic Principles of Computed Tomography Physics and Technical Considerations", in Computed Body Tomography with MRI Correlation, Editors J. K. T. Lee, S.S. Sagel, R.J. Stanley, J. P. Heiken, Fourth Edition Volume 1, pg. 1-28, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia 2006.
  2. Bruce R. Whiting, Elizabeth G. McFarland, James A. Brink, “Influence of Image Acquisition Parameters on CT Artifacts and Polyp Depiction in Spiral CT Colonography: In Vitro Evaluation”, Radiology 2000; 217:165-172.
  3. Zhao S, Robertson DD, Wang G, Whiting BR, Bae KT, “X-Ray Metal Artifact Reduction Using Wavelets: An Application for Imaging Total Hip Protheses”, IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, vol. 19, pp. 1238-1247, December 2000.
  4. D.L. Snyder, J. A. O’Sullivan, B.R. Whiting, R.J. Murphy, J. Benac, J.A. Cataldo, D.G. Politte, J.F. Williamson, “Deblurring Subject to Nonnegativity Constraints when Known Functions are Present with Application to Object-constrained Computerized Tomography”, IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging 2001 20:1009-1017.
  5. Bae K.T., Whiting B.R., “CT Data Storage Reduction by Compression of Projection Data Instead of Images: Feasibility Study”, Radiology 2001 219:850-855.
  6. Bruce R. Whiting, K. Ty Bae, Margaret W. Skinner, “Three Dimensional Localization of Cochlear Implants by Co-registration of CT and Conventional Radiographs”, Radiology 2001; 221:543:549.
  7. Williamson JF, Whiting BR, Benac J, Murphy RJ, Blaine GJ, O’Sullivan JA, Politte DG, Snyder DL, “Prospects for quantitative computed tomography imaging in the presence of foreign metal bodies using statistical image reconstruction”, Medical Physics, vol. 29 (10), pp 1-15, 2002.
  8. Low, D. A., M. Nystrom, et al. "A method for the reconstruction of four-dimensional synchronized CT scans acquired during free breathing." Med Phys 30: 1254-63, 2003.
  9. Couture, R. A., B. R. Whiting, et al.. "Visibility of trabecular structures in oral radiographs." Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 96: 764-71, 2003.
  10. Bae, K.T., C. Hong, and B.R. Whiting, Radiation dose in multidetector row computed tomography cardiac imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging, 2004. 19(6): p. 859-63.
  11. Wei Lu, Parag J. Parikh, James P. Hubenschmidt, David G. Politte, Bruce R. Whiting, Jeffrey D. Bradley, Sasa Mutic, and Daniel A. Low, “Reduction of motion blurring artifacts using respiratory gated CT in sinogram space: A quantitative evaluation”, Med. Phys. 32, 3295-3304 (2005).
  12. Whiting, B. R., P. Massoumzadeh, et al. (2006). "Properties of preprocessed sinogram data in x-ray computed tomography." Medical Physics 33(9): 3290-3303.